Vedic Gods - Aaditya Vishnu

By Mitul Trivedi | Jan 09, 2019 | in Ancient History | Share

What is an Aditya? Why is Vishnu the most revered Aditya?

Chapter 10 Verse 21: Aadityanam Aham Vishnu: Among Aadityas I am VISHNU.

 

Question: Among twelve Aadityas why only Vishnu and not other? 
Contemplation: 
12 (twelve) Adityas represent 12 (twelve) months (according to Solar Calendar). But during the age of Rigveda, the speed of earth's revolution and rotation was more, hence they were divided into 8 months. These 8 (eight) months were named the sons of Aditi and Kashyap rishi. They are in the following chronological order: 

 

  1. Varun
  2. Mitra
  3. Aryaman(Aryama)
  4. Bhag
  5. Ansh (Anshuman)
  6. Dhatri (Dhata)
  7. Indra
  8. Vayu (Martand)(Vivaswan)

 

Later, the speed of earth's revolution and rotation decreased and calculation of the time changed. Initially it was 10 hours per day and one year contained 124 days. During this period the sons of Aditi got added from 8 to 12. The distribution hence, was done once again and it has been mentioned in the Bhagvat Puran as under: 

 

  1. Varuna – One who resides under water
  2. Mitra – One who resides in/on the moon and sea
  3. Aryama – One who resides in wind/breeze
  4. Bhaga – One who resides in the body of every living being
  5. Anshumana – One who resides in the wind/breeze (anshu,vidhata,surya)
  6. Dhata (Dhatra) – One who creates life
  7. Indra – One who destroys the enemies of Deva/God
  8. Parjanya (Savitra) (Savita) – One who brings/generates rain
  9. Tvashta (Vishvakarma) – One who resides in the trees and roots
  10. Vishnu – The chief of all Adityas
  11. Pushya (Pausha, Pusan) – One who grows/reaps food grains
  12. Vivaswana – Agni (fire) and cooked food

 

The above mentioned 12 names are also stated in the Ling Purana, Vedanta and Mythological Hinduism. The Vishnu Purana and Chandhogya Upanishada also follow the same. In the Brahmina Granthas the ninth Aditya Tvashta is named Yama but in other epics/granthas, he is named Vivaswana, tenth Surya in place of Vishnu, eleventh Daksha in place of Pushya and twelfth its written Ravi in place of Vivaswana. It might have been possible that the 8 Adityas and later their other names were termed on their rebirth or after their sons and grandsons based on the 12 months, during the Rigveda Age.

 

If viewed in other dimension, the 12 Adityas are the representatives of Aries (Mesh) and other zodiac signs, serially. The order of this Aries in Lunar month is in the order of Chaitra-Vaishakh (lunar months) etc. In this order, their is Vrishchika (Scorpion) sun in the end of Kartik and the beginning of Margshirsha. These all zodiac signs have their individual Adityas. Vishnu is the Aditya of this...................and in all these Adityas, and spoken by Krishna to Arjuna in Gita that Vishnu is the best/greatest I am that.

 

Similarly, the Margshirsha month is also the best because the month begins the transition of Aditya in all the constellation. Therefore in the shloka 35, in Chapter-10 Krishna stated, 'Masanam Margashirshohum' (Among the months I am Margshirsha). 

In Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 12, Chapter 11, Text 27-49, the information about 12 Adityas and their companions has been given. As stated in 47-48, the rishis (seers / sages / saints) attuned the 12 Adityas with rucha (hymns) of Samaveda, Rigveda and Yajurveda. This avails recognition to the Adityas. The Gandharvas impress/upbeat and prays the Adityas by singing and the Apsaras impress/upbeat the Adityas by dancing. The snake is like the rope of the chariot and the Yakshas harness the horses to the chariot. The strong rakshashas/giants push the chariot from the backside. As stated in the 49......,the 60,000 brahmins rishis are known as Valkhilyas (A group of divine sages) travel in front and offer prayers to the almighty sun-god with Vedic mantras.  Thus, throughout the twelve months, the lord of the sun travels in all directions with his six types of associates, disseminating among the inhabitants of this universe purity of consciousness for both this life and the next. All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset. 

The twelve Adityas are nothing but different forms of the Sun-God Surya. In different Puranas their names are given differently. Brahma once recounted to the sages the one hundred and eight sacred names of Surya. The Brahma Purana lists these names and we reproduce them in nine groups of twelve names each.

 

  1. Surya, Archana, Bhagavana, Tvashta, Pusha, Arka, Savita, Ravi, Gabhastimana, Aja, Kala,, Mrityu
  2. Dhata, Prabhakara, Prithivi, Jala, Teja, Akasha, Vayu, Parayana, Soma, Brihaspati, Shukra, Budha
  3. Angaraka, Indra, Vivasvana, Diptamshu, Shuchi, Shouri,Shanaishvara, Brahma, Vishu, Rudra, Skanda, Vaishravana
  4. Yama, Vaidyuta, Jathara, Agni, Aindhana, Tejohapti, Dharmadhvaja, Vedakarta, Vedanga, Vedavahana, Krita, Treta
  5. Dvapara, Kali, Sarvasurashraya, Kala, Kashtha, Muhurta, Kshapa, Yama, Kshana, Samvatsara, Ashvattha, Kalachakra
  6. Vibhavasu, Shashvata, Purusha, Yogi, Vyaktavyakta, Sanatana, Kaladhyaksha, Prajadhyaksha, Vishvakarma, Tamonuda, Varuna, Sagara
  7. Amsha, Jimuta, Jivana, Ariha, Bhutashraya, Bhutapati, Sarvalokanamaskrita, Shrashta, Samvartaka, Vahni, Sarvadi, Alolupa
  8. Anata, Kapila, Bhanu, Kamada, Sarvotamukha, Jaya, Vishala, Varada, Sarvabhutasevita, Mana, Suparna, Bhutadi
  9. Shighraga, Pranadharana, Dhanvantari, Dhumaketu, Adideva, Aditinandana, Dvadashatma, Ravi, Daksha, Pita, Mata, Pitamaha

 

As mentioned above, in each month of the year, it is a different adityas who shines and traveling with the sun-god in each of the twelve months is a different set of six associates (six seasons) and further sub-associates. The seasons, months, sages, yaksh, gandharva, apsara, rakshasha and snake associated with these 12 Adityas are according to the below given table of contents. 

 

 

 

Season (Gujarati) Season (English) Aditya Julian Calendar Lunar Months Solar Months Sage Yaksha Gandharva Apsara Rakshasa Snake (Naga)
Vasanta Spring Dhata March-April Chaitra Madhu Pulatsya Rathakrt Tumburu Krtasthali Heti Vasuki
Vasanta Spring Aryama April-May Vaishakha Madhava Pulaha Athauja Narada Punjikasthali Praheti Kacchanira
Grishma Summer Mitra May-June Jyeshtha Shukra Atri Rathasvana Haha Menaka Pauruseya Taksaka
Grishma Summer Varuna June-July Ashadha Suchi Vasishtha Citrasvana Huhu Rambha Sahajanya Sukra
Varsha Monsoon Indra July-August Shravana Nabhasa Angira Srota Visvavasu Pramloca Varya Elapatra
Varsha Monsoon Vivaswan August-September Bhadrapada Nabhasya Bhrugu Asarana Ugrasena Anumloca Vyaghra Sankhapala
Sharad Autumn Tvashtha September-October Ashvina Isha Jamadagni Satajit Dhrtarastra Tilottama Brahmapeta Kambalasva
Sharad Autumn Vishnu October-November Kartika Urja Vishwamitra Satyajit Suryavarca Rambha Makhapeta Asvatara
Hemanta Winter Amshumana November-December Margashirsha Sahasa Kashyapa Tarksya Rtasena Urvasi Vidyucchatru Mahasankha
Hemanta Winter Bhaga December-January Pausha Sahasya Aayur Uma Aristanemi Purvacitti Sphurja Karkotaka
Shishira Dewy Pushya January-February Magha Tapasa Gautama Suruchi Susena Ghrtaci Vata Dhananjaya
Shishira Dewy Parjanya February-March Phalguna Tapasya Bharadwaja Ritu Visva Senajit Varca Airavata

 

The Samhitas, which are the oldest layer of text in Vedas enumerate 33 Devas, either 11 (Eleven) each for the three worlds or as 12 (Twelve) Adityas, 11 (Eleven) Rudras, 8 (Eight) Vasus and 2 Ashvins in Brahamanas layer of Vedic texts. Now what is the meaning of “Deva”?

 

“Deva” is a Sanskrit word found in Vedic literature of 2 nd millennium BCE. Monier Williams translates it as “heavenly divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones”. The Sanskrit Deva derives from Indo-Iranian “dev” which in turn descends from the Proto-Indo- European word, “deiwas”, originally an adjective meaning “celestial” or “shining” which is a vrddhi derivative from the root “diw” meaning “to shine” especially as the day-lit sky. The feminine form of “deiwos” is “deiwih” which descends into Indic languages as “devi”, in that context meaning “female deity”. Also deriving form “deiwos”, and thus cogntes of deva, are Lithuanian “Dievas”, Latvian “Dievs”, Prussian “Deiwas”, Germanic “Tiwas” (See in English “Tuesday”) and the related Old Norse Tivar (gods), and Latin “deus”, Old Latin “deivos”, Spanish “dios” and Italian “dio” also “Zeys – Dias”, the Greek father of the gods are derived. It is related to “Dyeus” which while from the same root, may originally have referred to the “heavenly shining father”, and hence to “Father Sky” the Chief God of the Indo-European pantheon, continuesly in Sanskrit Dyaus. The oldest texts details 33 (Thirty Three) principle Devas who were the guardians of Nature and Cosmic Creation.

 

Now among these 33 Devas, 12 Adityas correspond to the 12 solar months and represent different attributes of social life. Why these 12 months are known as 12 different Adityas? Which are 12 different Adityas for 12 different months? Why Adityas are associated with different “Pranayama”?

 

These twelve (12) Adityas represent different attributes of social life. 

 

  1. Varun - fate
  2. Mitra - friendship
  3. Aryaman - nobility
  4. Bhaag - due inheritance
  5. Ansh - due share
  6. Dhatri - ritual skill
  7. Indra / Shakra - leadership
  8. Parjanya - power of word
  9. Twashar - skill in crafting
  10. Vishnu - cosmic law
  11. Pushan / Ravi - prosperity
  12. Vivasvan / Surya social law

 

Interestingly, these twelve Aadityas were adopted in to Chines and Japanese Buddhism as guardians of the monasteries covering the four main directions, four semi-directions, above, below and the Sun and Moon. They are known as Devas or Ten Æ› in Japan (which literally means Heaven).

 

A similar depiction is found on a rock-cut cave far away in Yazili Kaya in Turkey ! This rock-cave has multiple depictions of Gods and Goddesses that resemble Hindu Gods. The lower chamber in this cave shows a frieze with 12 Aadityas God carved onto it who were worshiped by the people known as Hittites.

 

 

Source: http://decodehindumythology.blogspot.com/p/suryavansham.html

 

 

 

Twelve months are the term used to describe the circle of twelve 30 degree divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic, the path of Sun. Same term is also applied for the Zodiac. Due to to the revolution of Earth around the Sun and the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere Months and Zodiac defined. The path in which the Earth travels around the Sun is “Earth's Orbit”.

 

The Zodiac is the term used to describe the circle of twelve 30 degree divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic – the path of the Sun. We have to understand these twelve 30 degree divisions and their effects on universe, earth and body. In ancient textures our Rishies calculated and defined these twelve Zodiac names or months as twelve Aadityas. They also described number of rays per month hit the earth surface in different twelve months and accordingly atmosphere affected and on the same bases body is affected. So our sagas have mentioned how to protect and survive our body from these 12 Aadityas (in twelve different months). They described our food system and thinking patterns in twelve different months. In the same manner our sagas showed us how to breath and howmany times we have to breath in each and individual month or for different Aadityas. Thus due to creation of every angle of solar rays, we are affected and thus our universe is also affected. Aaditya is the soul of Solar System. Same is depicted in Rigveda also: “Surya Aatma Jagatasthushascha |” (Rig 1-115- 1)

 

Its vedic meaning in Surya (Aaditya) is the soul of all kind of matters and elements of the world. In Prashnopanishad said:

 

“Pranati Prajanamuda yatvesha Suryah |” (P. U. 1 to 8)

 

Means whole creatures of the world, soul of visible and invisible universal things is Surya, the Sun God. During explanation of this shloka ( versa ), Rigveda is highlighted by sagas. They explained very clearly that the energy of all things, creatures' activity as well as light heat, electrical, magnetic, nuclear energy is generated from Aaditya. Even trees, plants, animals, humans, etc are absorbing energy either directly or indirectly from Sun. But according to different time and space we are getting this vitality from different barriers. This same vitality we are getting from different angles in different time and space is known as various kinds of vitality. These various vitality is visible in form of different gods. So instead of one Sun god, we are recognising as twelve different gods and recognised on the name of twelve Aditi's sons, Aadityas. Rigveda is mentioning about seven different Aadityas from seven bearings.

 

“Saptadisho nanasuryaha Sapta Hotar RutijahDeva Aditya ye Sapta Tebhihi |” (Rig 9-114- 3)

 

In below incantation different vitality in different kind of animals are different in seven different directions. So this one Aaditya is known as seven Aaditya.

 

“Athaditya Udyan Yat Prachin Disham Pravishati Ten Prachyan Pranan Rashmishu Sannidhate | Yadaxinamyat Pratichim Yadudichim Yadadho Yadurdhvam Yadantara Disho Yatsarvam Prakhashyati Ten Sarvan Pranan Rashmishu Sannidhate ||” (Prashnopanishad 1 to 6)

 

Interpretation:

 

When Sun God rises in the east means “Prachi” direction, rays of the Sun are full of “Prachay Prana”. When sun rises in the south, rays contains “Dakshina Prana”. Same way in north “Uttara Prana” and in west “Paschima Prana”. Here east means front side, west means back side. When Sun comes in front (east), back (west), right (north) and left (south), as well as rises in top, bottom and came in middle, rays donate seven different pranas. Due to different time, space and situations, different twelve pranas we identify them as twelve months, twelve zodiac signs and as twelve Aadityas.

 

“Katame Aditya Iti Dwadasha Vai Masaha Sanvatsarasya Ete Adityaha |” (Bruhadaranyaka Up 3-9- 5)

 

Interpretation:

 

Who are Aadityas and how many they are?

 

In a year there are twelve months and for each month there is each Aaditya. Every 30 degree angle creates a zodiac sign which is connecting with different celestial and in every one degree angle a rotation of an earth on its own sphere completes. So on each and every one degree angle of solar rays give different vitality (Prana Shakti) which affects differently on body, mind atmosphere, sea and land. Below table describes different Aadityas connected with different zodiac signs in different twelve months along with the affected body parts, its elements, colours and physical and mental effects. In the table we are discussing the number of month wise rays touching on a single point of the earth surface.

 

Zodiac Month Organ Element Water Color Physical Mental No of Rays
Pisces (Meen) Chaitra Head and Mouth Bottle Green Balancing Reflective 1200
Aries (Mesh) Vaishakh Neck and Sore Throat Fire Red Hot / Active Courageous 1300
Taurus (Vrush) Jyeshtha Arm, Shoulder and Lungs Earth Pink Active / Warm Sociable 1400
Gemini (Mithun) Ashadha Chest and Venter Air Yellow Move / Cool Contentment 1500
Cancer (Kark) Shravan Heart, Tergum and Spinal Cord Water White / Silver Passive / Cool Peaceful 1400
Leo (Sinh) Bhadrapada Intestine and Lever Fire Orange / Golden Hot / Move Optimise 1300
Virgo (Kanya) Ashvina Bladder and Loin (waist) Earth Brown and Navy Healing Confidence 1200
Libra (Tula) Kartika Genitals Air Pastels Warm / Grove Balance 1100
Scorpio (Vrishchika) Margashirsha Thighs and Buttocks Water Dark Red Hot / Energy Strength 1100
Sagittarius (Dhanu) Pausha Knee and Legs Fire Purple Cooling Inner cum 1100
Capricorn (Makara) Magha Step Earth Black and Dark Brown Cool / Strong Power 1100
Aquarius (Kumbha) Falguna Feet and Toes or Feet Air Turquoise Cool / Balance Innovation 1100

 

These twelve Aadityas are in adverse relation with each other like Varuna and Mitra, Varuna and Indra, Bhaga and Dhata, Aaryama and Anshuman, Parjanya and Vivaswan, Twashta and Pushya. But these all associated positively with Vishnu as he was most intellectual, clever, omnipoint and omniscient. So he was the most respectable and honorable among the Aadityas. Apart from the demigods, “Daityas” and “Danavas” also gave him respect due to his qualities. Either they were afraid of Vishnu or they became devotes of Vishnu.

 

The Trimurti (three forms) is concept in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation maintenance and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma – the creator, Vishnu – the maintainer, presevr and protector and Mahesh – the destroyer or transformer. These three deities have also been called “the Hindu triad” or “the Great Trinity” all having the same meaning of three in one.

 

Etymology:

 

The name Vishnu involves the root vis, meaning “to settle” (cognate with Latin vicus, Englis – wich “village”, slavic : vas – ves), or also (in the Rigveda) to enter into; to pervade, “glossing the name as” the All Pervading One Yaska, an early commentator on the Vedas in his Nirukta, (etymological interpretation), defines Vishnu as visnur visvater va vyasnoter va, “one who enters every where”. He also writes, atha yad visito bhavati tad visnurbhavati, “that which is free from fetters and bondages s Vishnu”. Adi Shankara in his commentary on the Sahastranama states derivation from “vis” with a meaning “presence every where” (As he pervades everything, vevsti he is called Vishnu). He further states (regarding Vishnu Purana 3-1- 45): “The Power of the Supreme Being has entered within the universe. The root vis means enter into. Swami Chinmayananda, in his translation of Vishnu Saahastranama further elaborates on that verse: “The root “vis” means to enter. The entire world of emphatically insists in its mantra whatever that is there is the world of change. Hence it means that he is not limited by space, time or substance.

 

In the Rigveda, Vishnu is mentioned 93 times. He is frequently invoked alongside other deities, especially Indra, whom he helped in killing Vritra and with whom he drank Soma. His distinguishing characteristic in the Vedas in his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 are dedicated to Vishnu. In 7.99, Vishnu is addressed as the god who seperated heaven and earth, a characteristic he shared with Indra.

 

James Freeman Clarke, Richard Leviton (1871, Ten Great Religions: a Essay in Comparative Theology: Trubner & Company, Page 247 by Richard Leviton), Richard Leviton (2002) What's Beyond That Star. A chronicle of Geomythic Adventure, Clairview Books Page 160; James Cowles Prichard (1819). An Analysis of the Egyption Mythology: To which is subjoined a Critical Examination of the Remains of Egyption Chronology. J and A Arch Page 285. All these described similarities between Vishnu and Ancient Egyption God Horus.

 

Horus is notably being a god of the sky, war and hunting in the Egyptian Pantheon. Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as hr.w; the pronunciation has been reconstructed as ḥr.w "Falcon"; the pronunciation has been reconstructed as ħaːruw (Haru). Additional meanings are thought to have been "the distant one" or "one who is above, over". By Coptic times, the name became hoːɾ or ħoːɾ and was adopted into ancient Greek as Ὧρος Hōros (pronounced at the time as hoːɾos). It also survives in Late Egyptian and Coptic theophoric names such as Har-si- ese "Horus, Son of Isis". Some have proposed that Nekheny may have been another falcon-god, worshiped at Nekhen (City of Falcon) (Location in Egypt - 25°5′50″N 32°46′46″E ) in upper Egypt with which Horus was identified from early on Nekhen, an Ancient Greek city known as “city of hawk”; Egyptian Arabic: الكوم الأحمر‎‎ el-Kōm el-Aḥmar "the Red Mound which was the religious and political capital of upper Egypt at the end of prehistoric Egypt (c. 3200–3100 BC) and probably also during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100–2686 BC).

 

Now we are going to discuss about Vishnu Abode - “Vaikuntha”. See map of old Persia. On the west side of Kashyapa Sea (now Caspian Sea), you will find Caucasus Mountain, which is spreaded in the southern coastal area of sea. Below this mountain and between the hills and range of this mountain Georgia is located below Georgia a place is “Azerbaijan” which is now in the area of Soviate Contries. The original name of this Azerbaijan was “Arya-Viryana” means land of Aadityas' ancestral who moved on these land. After the flood of Noah, this place was identified as “Arya-Viryana”. Varun rescued the Aadityas and their families from flood and relocated them at Arya-Viryana. Varun make the ways from flood water by excavating huge canals and merged with huge rivers and sea. So he was called “the God of Sea” or “the God of Water”. Here Saga Atrey who was grand son of Saga Bhrugu and son of Saga Sukra, established his abode. On his name a river was named “Atrak River” (Atrek in Persian). Other names are Etrk, Attruck, Atrak or Etrek. This area was known as “Atrey-patana” which is know as “Etropaten”. This was on the south eastern side of Caspian Sea. And on the south western side the river was known as “Aras River” which is in the land of Ararat means Armenia, previously known as part of Atrey-Patana. This was the place where sun never used to be set. Sun remained in the sky constantly. So it was also known as “Tapo-Bhumi” (Thospia → Taporat). Iranian called this place “Paradise”.

 

Neighbouring area was known as Media. In Hindu Textures, this area of Atrey (Atri) was known as “Paren Himavantam” means a flat land. Here the land of Vishnu was situated as “Vaikuntha”. Other land was known as Bahishta and Satyalok. In Hindu Purana this land was described as “Kamadharadhara” means land of soil and land of fruitful trees. This was the land of “Kalpataru” and “Soma” used to produce here. There is one more old city named “Van” here. These all areas are situated in mountain range of Caucasus which was originally located on “Demaband Mountain” (recently known as Mount Demavand). The king means “Tapasi” of this area was “Vikushta”. This area is known as “Hyrcania” today. In Old Persia it was recorded as “Verkana”. “Verka” means wolf in old Iranian, cf. Avestan vÉ™hrkō, Gilaki and Mazandarani Verk, Modern Persian gorg, and Sanskrit VÅ—ka. “Ishta” means adorable. Consequently, Hyrcania means "Wolf-land" and “Vikushta” ( VÅ—ka + Ishta) means adorable or ruler of VÅ—ka people. Son of Vikushta was “Vaikuntha” and on his name whole area was identified as “Vaikuntha Dham”.

 

Later on grand son of Vivaswan and second son of Manu, Nruga was king of this place. His ancestrals were recognised as Nrugritons, who used to wear the face of falcon and feathers of falcons. Later on they were joined with eagle cast who used to wear eagle face and feathers. They both the cast lived to gather at the place named “Garuda-Dhama” (eagle place) which was later on renamed as Garudeshia. But the original Nrugritons' place was identified as “Nekhen”. The shape of the place was also like falcon, These both the cast were very close with Aaditya Vishnu and fought against “Hiranya Kaashyapa”; a son of Saga Kashyapa known as Kaashyapa and who found gold mines (in Sanskrit gold means Hiranya) across Caspian Sea. So a Kaashyapa who owned “Hiranya” is called “Hiranya Kaashyapa”. Hiranya Kaashyapa killed on the mountain of Suma by Nruga. In the war Nruga used to wear face, skin and nails of lions. So he was identified as Nrug + Sinha (lion) = Nrugsinha = Nrusinha = Narinha.

 

After flood, Vishnu stayed in Vaikuntha and there he prepared submarine named “Shesh-Shaiya” and used to travel in “Kshir Saagar” (Dead Sea). In Nekhen he prepare a “Vimana” named “Garuda” with the help of eagle cast and his elder brother Twashta (Vishwakarma).

 

Vishnu was very aggressive, foresighted, statesmen, wise, and clever politician. Among all the Aadityas, Varuna was the eldest and very calm. He was very lovingly with every one including Daityas and Danavas. Vishnu was more practical than Varuna in social and political life. Varuna was more innocent than Vishnu. So many times he was unable to understand the politics and guile or machination of other Asuras. So everybody impressed with Vishnu and obeyed him. Vishnu was the leader all Devas and Aadityas. He guided and leaded all of them against war of Asuras. So among Aadityas he was best one. Varuna resettled Aadityas in Arya-Viryana. Same way Vishnu sent Vaivaswata Manu (Son of twelfth Aaditya Vivaswana) towards east with the help of the coastal tribes and fishermen who were good sailors. With help of such experts, Vishnu guided Manu and create a huge ship, took all the spices in it along with other living and non-living things. Vishnu was the steersman and navigator in the form of fish according to Hindu Puranas (Matsya Purana, Bhagvat Puran, etc). Manu (according to Bible, Noah) was the oarsman, ferryman or mariner.

 

As we stated above regarding “Arya-Viryana” means Arya + Virya + Ayana.

 

Arya = respectable, honorable. 
Virya = champion, armed man 
Ayan = movement 

 

So we can say that movement of champions or armed men or honorable and respected persons in which place is called Arya + Virya + Ayana = Arya-Viryana (at present area of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Assyria). Now again talking about a giant ship of Manu that came eastern side from western land and settled in “Arya-Varta” means present Northern part of India. Michael Cook (204), Ancient Religions, Modern Politics; The Islamic Cases in Comparative Perspective Princeton University Press – page 68 : 'Aryavarta is defined byManu as extending from Himalayas in the north to the Vindhyas of Central India in the south and from the sea in west to the sea in the east'.

 

At where Manu used to stay was identified as “Manu Aalaya” which is presently identified as “Manali” in Himachal Pradesh and the ancestral of Manu were identified as “Manava”. We all are the ancestral of Manu and survived due to the wise leadership of Vishnu. So we respect him and follow him. Vishnu is the savior, protector of Manava. So psychologically from we are highly inspired or impressed and from whom we are scared, we consider them as our mentor in initial stage. Gradually those who are beyond our control, we respect them and set them as a God in our mind. So they are our mental God, psychological god and Vishnu is one of them.

 

Later on all the Aadityas guided and taught Manavas and helped them in their social and mental development. Here again all Aadityas were doing under the leadership of Vishnu. So Vishnu became our protector, developer and savior.

 

Later on in the era of Mahabharata, Krishna was the person who provide the same leadership to Pandavas as Vishnu did. Krishna performed in same manner as Vishnu. So our sagas called him incarnation of Vishnu. Here incarnation means identical personality, similar thinking and doing in same manner as Vishnu did. So our sagas and Krishna himself identified himself as incarnation of Vishnu. In Bhishma Parva of Mahabharat, Krishna explained Arjuna about him self that…

 

“Aadityanam Aham Vishnuhu !”